The programming languages that work on now are mostly based on Object-Oriented Programming Concepts. OOP is one of the most basic concepts and the underlying architecture for any programming language. Out of so many languages, Java is one such language that leverages the concepts of OOPs and is supported by 4 pillars of OOPs that we will discuss in the next section.
What are OOPs?
There are 4 pillars on which any programming language is based. And these are abstraction, polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation. All these concepts allow developers to write programs using various variables and methodologies. Understanding all the 4 pillars of OOPs would help you to build applications using the Java programming language easily.
Java Defines four important pillars of oop as follows.
Abstraction is one such OOP Concept among four important pillars of OOPs that aims to display things in a simpler way by abstracting out the complex element. Java programming language allows developers to use some of the concepts like objects, variables, and classes, that can be used to represent the complex code and data of any Application. Also, since it offers reusability, allowing developers to use the same classes and objects at different parts of codes makes the development process quick.
In very layman’s terms, the word, Encapsulation means wrapping up the information. When it comes to programming, a developer can create private classes and the objects, which can further be wrapped by the public functions so it acts like a protective layer on the private components. Such components can be easily used at different parts of programs without calling the private components directly.
Inheritance works in a similar way to how it works in the real world. Like a child, it can inherit the assets of its family, similarly, in Programming languages, the child classes can inherit functions and variables from the parent class. For example, if there is a class that has a specific function to get the area of shape, and now if you want to calculate the area of a square, instead of rewriting everything from scratch, you can inherit the shape class and call the functions that you want to use.
As we discussed before, in this code example, we have inherited the Shape class to the polygon class that uses the method getArea from the Shape Class.
This is one of the interesting Oop concepts among the 4 pillars of OOPs, that allows developers to use the same function or variable in different forms or the context. Function Overloading is one such concept that is based on polymorphism. A developer can use this concept to write various functions with a different logic and the same name.
The four pillars of OOPs or the OOPs concept play a major role when it comes to programming the real-world application using Java. In the following section, you will learn more about how such Oops Concepts work in Java.
How Do the four pillars of the Object-Oriented Programming concept work in Java?
Four pillars of object-oriented programming in Java Play an important role to maintain the security of any Java application. In a few sections, we will discuss how each pillar of Oops in Java works.
How does OOP’s Encapsulation Concept work in Java?
If a developer wants to make use of any functionality from the code, then they can use this concept as a time-saving practice. They can create a piece of code that can fetch data from the database. Although it will fetch the original data, the developer can keep the original data private and use wrappers around it to send that data to users.
What is Abstraction in Java? How does it Work?
Abstraction is another pillar of OOPs in Java that can be useful to create reusable tools like objects or calls. The best use case of the abstraction could be when a developer wants to store the same information for two different entities. For example, in an application where a developer wants to store the information about employees, customers, and suppliers, then the developer can use abstraction and create one common class which stores the name, street, city, and area for all the three different entities and reuse it to store data.
As you can check this example, there are a few private methods like check fuel, CheckBatteryLevel, and when the vehicle stops. And these functions can be called using the start vehicle Method, instead of calling these functions directly.
How does polymorphism in Java work?
Think of two classes, one the parent class and another one the base class. Let’s say the base class wants to use some function from the parent class but wants to have different logic. In this case, the developer can achieve this by using the concept of polymorphism. It can write the same function name but different logic by overriding the parent class method. Let’s say the parent class calculates the sum of two digits but if in the child class the developer wants to calculate some of three digits, then it can use the same function name but different logic that adds three numbers instead of two.
But what if you want to use the same method with different parameters? In that case, method overloading could be used as we discussed before. A single method can perform in different ways depending upon the number of parameters that we pass to it.
Fig: Code Piece that represents function overloading concept.
Using the Oops concepts in Java would make the work much easier for the developers, but before deep diving into Oops practices, there are some basic concepts that one should learn before like Object, classes, Interface, Package, etc. By knowing all the 4 important pillars of Oops concepts and a few basics, a developer can ensure the best security of the code and build some of the best applications.
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